These cells, called retinal pigment epithelium , are the 1st to die off in SMD often and AMD, which leads to lack of vision. While there is presently no treatment for SMD, in the past ACT and its collaborators found that human being embryonic stem cells is actually a source of RPE cells. Subsequent research discovered that the cells could restore vision in animal types of macular degeneration. In a Royal College of Surgeons rat model, implantation of RPE cells resulted in 100 percent improvement in visual efficiency over untreated controls, without any undesireable effects.The researchers pointed out that the profile of the typical bike rider has transformed a complete lot during that time, with fewer kids riding a bicycle every full day and even more adults – – especially men – – doing this. ‘Recent years have seen the largest upsurge in bicycling [among adults],’ the authors wrote. ‘For instance, during 2000-2012, the true number of U.S. Employees who traveled to work by bicycle increased 61 %,’ they said. Most of that development occurred among men aged 25 to 64. For the time being, ‘cycling prices have remained steady for women and also have fallen among kids,’ Vargo’s team said.